Post-introduction evaluation
and EPI programme reviews

EPI programme reviews typically assess the introduction of a new vaccine. If maternal influenza vaccine introduction necessitates a significant change to current practice, a post-introduction evaluation (PIE) can be used. This could help to identify rapidly any problem areas needing correction within the immunization programme, provide valuable lessons for continued and improved use of the vaccine, and help assess the impact of the influenza vaccination programme onto health services and other maternal immunization programmes (Toolbox).

A PIE is usually organized within 6–12 months. It can be adapted to country contexts and provides a systematic approach to evaluating the impact of maternal influenza vaccine introduction, and to comparing results across countries so that they may share and learn from each other’s experiences.

The programme manager responsible for introducing maternal influenza vaccination in the country is responsible for conducting the PIE. He or she will need to coordinate the adaptation of the PIE to the specific country context and to the specifics of the vaccine formulation and presentations. The PIE should be performed at all levels of the health system. It is conducted by using questionnaires, checklists, observation of practices and recording reviews at all levels of the health service, including cold and dry vaccine storage areas and points of vaccine administration, such as health facilities.
A number of useful tools can support the pre-planning of a PIE. The questionnaires, data collection forms and report templates in the Toolbox provide the evaluating manager with additional instructions and support to conduct the PIE in a cost-efficient manner.

In addition, the WHO data quality self-assessment (DQS) can serve to evaluate different aspects of the immunization monitoring system at district and health unit levels. Accordingly, influenza vaccination should be included in the DQS assessment.


New vaccine post-introduction evaluation (PIE) tool. (Document WHO/IVB/10.03). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.

The immunization data quality self-assessment (DQS) tool. (Document WHO/IVB/05.04). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.


When should post-introduction evaluation (PIE) be used for maternal influenza vaccination?

A. Whenever a vaccine is introduced.
B. If maternal influenza vaccine introduction necessitates a significant change to current practice.
C. At the request of national authorities or WHO.
D. If monitoring and evaluation indicate that the vaccine is not having an impact.


Answer B is correct.